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GENDER EQUALITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT IN AFRICA: Analysis of Key Factors

GENDER EQUALITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLMENT IN AFRICA: Analysis of Key Factors

 

Abstract: In addition to analysing the characteristics of gender equality in primary education enrolment in Africa, this paper empirically studies the key drivers of gender equality in primary education enrolment, using crosssectional time series data from 1970 to 2010. The results show that the coefficient associated with the level of real GDP per capita is positive and statistically significant in both the overall Africa sample and in the sub-Saharan and North African samples. However, the quadratic term of real GDP per capita is negative in sign and significant in these estimates. These provide evidence of a hump-shaped relationship between real GDP per capita and gender equality in primary education enrolment in Africa. The results also suggest that higher number of primary school teachers, increased democracy, higher female share of the population, Christian dominance in a country, and being an oil-exporting country increase gender equality in primary education enrolment in the continent. Conversely, increases in gross government consumption expenditure (as share of GDP) tend to lower enrolment. The policy implications and lessons of these results are discussed.

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